The oxygen atom, like the carbon atom, also has a trigonal planar arrangement of the electrons that requires sp2 hybridization. sp hybridization explains the chemical bonding in compounds with triple bonds, such as alkynes; in this model, the 2s orbital mixes with only one of the three p-orbitals, resulting in two sp orbitals and two remaining p-orbitals. In sp hybridization, the s orbital of the excited state carbon is mixed with only one out of the three 2p orbitals. When one ‘s’ orbital and 3 ‘p’ orbitals belonging to the same shell of an atom mix together to form four new equivalent orbital, the type of hybridization is called a tetrahedral hybridization or sp 3. 7) breaks the π bond, for then the axes of the p orbitals are perpendicular and there is no net overlap between them. For determining hybridization, always count regions of electron density. The hybridization theory is often seen as a long and confusing concept and it is a handy skill to be able to quickly determine if the atom is sp 3, sp 2 or sp without having to go through all the details of how the hybridization had happened.. Fortunately, there is a shortcut in doing this and in this post, I will try to summarize this in a few distinct steps that you need to follow. What is a hybrid? CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi_bond In a shorthand way trigonal and sp2 are synonyms. In sp2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of 3 sp2 orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. Valence bond theory: Introduction; Hybridization; Types of hybridization; sp, sp 2, sp 3, sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2, sp 3 d 3; VALENCE BOND THEORY (VBT) & HYBRIDIZATION. Ethene has a double bond between the carbons. The hybridization of SO3 is sp2. Any central atom surrounded by three regions of electron density will exhibit sp 2 hybridization. In this case, carbon will sp2 hybridize; in sp2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of three sp hybrid orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. the overlapping occurs to make this double bond (b) Using sketches (and the analogy to the double bond in C2H4), describe the two bonds CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sp2%20hybridization Wiktionary Formation of pi bonds - sp2 and sp hybridization; Contributors and Attributions; Hybridization was introduced to explain molecular structure when the valence bond theory failed to correctly predict them. When the two O-atoms are brought up to opposite sides of the carbon atom in carbon dioxide, one of the p orbitals on each oxygen forms a pi bond with one of the carbon p-orbitals. The shape of ethene is controlled by the arrangement of the sp 2 orbitals. The chemical bonding in acetylene (ethyne) (C2H2) consists of sp-sp overlap between the two carbon atoms forming a sigma bond, as well as two additional pi bonds formed by p-p overlap. Notice two things about them: They all lie in the same plane, with the other p orbital at right angles to it. Double bonds involving carbon are sp2 hybridized. It is determined with the help of formula: Number of hybrid orbitals = Number of sigma bonds + Number of lone pairs. Ethene structure. Just remember this and you'll do fine. All the compounds of carbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond, Ethylene (C 2 H 4) sp 3 Hybridization. The shape of ethene. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_hybridization Molecules with triple bonds, such as acetylene, have two pi bonds and one sigma bond. This organic chemistry video tutorial explains the hybridization of atomic orbitals. 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